Ascariasis

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Ascariasis

Title               

    Ascariasis

Definition

    Infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides

Aetiology

    Ascaris lumbricoides

Pathogenesis

Life Cycle

    Ova ingested, larvae released in the small intestine

    Larvae pass through the mucosa, penetrate the venules, enter the  portal vein, reach the inferior vena cava, then the  pulmonary capillaries

    Larvae pass through the alveolar wall, up the trachea to the oesophagus

    Larvae reach the small intestine

    Mature into adult worms

    Adult worms mate, eggs passed out in the faeces, infective larvae develop within the eggs

Transmission

    Faecal oral route:

Contaminated food, poor hygiene

Clinical Features

E&M

    Fever:

Larval migration phase

IS

    Urticarial rash:

Larval migration phase

RS

    Asthma:

Larval migration phase

GIT

    Abdominal discomfort

    Flatulence

    Intestinal obstruction

    Intestinal perforation

    Obstructive jaundice

    Pancreatitis

Investigations

Fluids

Blood

Haematology

    Eosinophilia:

Larval migration phase

Faeces

Microbiology

    Ova in stool:

Microscopy

Imaging

Contrast Studies

    Barium meal:

Shows adult worms

Ultrasound

    Hepatobiliary ascariasis

    Pancreatic ascariasis

Management

Cure

Drugs

    Albendazole

    Mebendazole

    Levamisole

    Pyrantel embonate

Prevention

Drugs

    Treatment of infected individuals

Lifestyle Adjustments

    Improved personal hygiene

Residence

    Proper disposal of faeces

 

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